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Hepatitis B - Update

Hepatitis B - Update

Hepatitis B - Update

Craig V. Towers, M.D., & Patricia D. Hastings RN, BSN, MSN
Craig V. Towers, M.D., & Patricia D. Hastings RN, BSN, MSN
on behalf of e-Ed Credits

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Review:

Launch date: 19 Sep 2017
Expiry Date:

Last updated: 11 Jan 2018

Reference: 184793

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Course Availability

This course is only available to trainees days after purchase. It would need to be repurchased by the trainee if not completed in the allotted time period. This course is no longer available. You will need to repurchase if you wish to take the course again.

Description

Hepatitis B was the first primary hepatitis virus discovered and reported upon in JAMA by Blumberg et al in 1965. Because the spread of this virus is primarily by a percutaneous or permucosal pathway, it was originally called serum hepatitis. Hepatitis B (HBV) is a circular DNA virus that is 42 nanometers in size. It is unique in that it is double stranded for two-thirds of its length and single stranded for the remaining third. It also contains its own DNA polymerase enzyme. Eight distinct serotypes exist. These are primarily important when performing epidemiology studies. All HBV particles contain a group-reactive determinant labeled ""a"" along with 2 sets of sub-determinants designated ""d"" or ""y"" and ""w"" or ""r"". The ""w"" was then found to have 4 different variants w1, w2, w3, and w4. Thus eight distinct serotypes have been identified, which are ayw1, ayw2, ayw3, ayw4, ayr, adw2, adw4 and adr.

Many patients are at increased risk for being a chronic carrier of Hepatitis B. These include the ethnic groups of Asians, Eskimos, Pacific Islanders, Haitians, and Sub-Saharan Africans. Other risk factors include male homosexual activity, prostitution, intravenous drug usage, patients with multiple tattoos, prior blood transfusion recipients, hemodialysis patients, hemophiliacs or other patients with bleeding disorders, and individuals who work in hospitals or chronic care facilities.

At the present time, there are 200 to 250 million carriers worldwide. The carrier rate in the United States ranges between 0.1% and 1% depending upon the population tested (or from 1 in 100 to 1 in 1000 persons). Individuals who become chronically infected have a 10% to 25% chance of progressing to cirrhosis and a 200 fold increased risk for developing hepatocellular carcinoma.

If an adult becomes acutely infected, there is about a 10% chance of becoming a chronic carrier. This chronic carrier state can lead to the development of chronic persistent hepatitis, chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma, as stated above. Table 1 puts this information into better perspective.

Objectives

Upon completion of this course, the learner will be able to:
1. Discuss the impact of Hepatitis B infections on healthcare and the diagnostic work-up of the patient infected with this virus.

2. Describe the different ways in which the Hepatitis B virus can be transmitted between adults and to children through perinatal transmission and breastfeeding.

3. Discuss the effectiveness of and recommendations for immunoprophylaxis against Hepatitis B and the potential treatment options for chronic infections.
Craig V. Towers, M.D., & Patricia D. Hastings RN, BSN, MSN

Author Information Play Video Bio

Craig V. Towers, M.D., & Patricia D. Hastings RN, BSN, MSN
on behalf of e-Ed Credits

Patricia D. Hastings has been a registered nurse involved in clinical practice for more than 25 years. She currently is a Women’s Health Nurse Practitioner for Desert Mountain Obstetrics & Gynecology Group. Prior to this, she was the Clinical Director of Obstetrics and Women’s Services at John C. Lincoln-North Mountain Hospital in Phoenix, Arizona and was a Case Manager for Vista Care Hospice. She is a member of AWHONN and is a certified Fetal Heart Monitoring Instructor. She is also a member of the ANA and is participating in the Advanced Practice Chapter of the Arizona Nurses Association.

She received her BSN and then her MSN from Wichita State University followed by a postmaster’s Women’s Health Nurse Practitioner Certification from Arizona State University. She has provided several presentations regarding nursing concerns related to Women’ Health Care and has frequently lectured on normal and high-risk obstetrical issues. She has practiced clinically in Kansas, California, and Arizona.

Current Accreditations

This course has been certified by or provided by the following Certified Organization/s:

  • American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC)
  • 1.00 Hours

Faculty and Disclosures

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Conflicts Declared

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